Diabetes is very tricky because it is not always possible to recognize it right away. But there are several obvious signs of it. It’s very easy to check if you have a disease, for that you just need to have a blood glucose test. You can use a home portable blood glucose meter.
Who gets diabetes?
It is not true that only an overweight person with parents with the same ailment can become ill. But, yes, it is these factors that contribute to the occurrence of the disease in most cases. In predisposed people, the disease develops if there is a lot of sweets. But love for sweets and cakes is not enough. Those who are ill or have acute or chronic pancreatitis are at risk of getting sick. The pancreas “does not like” not only sweets but also fatty, fried foods.
Hormonal drugs, chronic stress are additional risk factors. Therefore, at the slightest increase in blood sugar, give up hormonal contraception. By itself, it rarely becomes the cause of the disease, several factors are needed. If you can not do without hormones, then choose modern drugs, low-dose, the latest generations.
There are two types of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are missing or damaged. Such a patient needs regular hormone injections. Type 2 diabetes occurs in 90% of patients with this disease. Their body does not produce enough insulin, or the cells do not respond to the hormone as needed.
What should be alerted? How to understand that you have diabetes?
Patients concerned about:
- Frequent urination (every half an hour and more often).
- Thirst, where there is a need to drink 3 liters of fluid (even in winter).
- Strong appetite (I’m hungry every half hour regardless of the amount eaten).
- Blurred vision, the image becomes fuzzy, there is double vision.
- Itching of the genitals, thrush.
- Excessive sweating.
- Fungal infections of the nails, their ingrowth.
- Caries of a large number of teeth, gingivitis, frequent colds.
Even preschoolers can suffer from diabetes (type 1 disease). It is considered a non-infectious epidemic of our century. There are many reasons for this, but the most important thing is the unhealthy diet, constant presence in the menu of fast food, hot dogs, hamburgers, chips. Many people are accustomed to drinking Coca-Cola, and not pure water. And there is a lot of sugar there, it is very simple to recover from it, and this drink does not quench your thirst.
Treatment of diabetes: what you need to know if you have found the disease
First: Injections are not always needed. In the early stages, it is just possible to change lifestyle and increase physical activity. For many, this is enough for insulin production to return to normal. If these measures do not help – connect the tablets. And injections – if the pills stop working. A special insulin pump was invented – a device that eliminates the need to constantly make injections. The pump is usually mounted on the belt.
Second: Need a diet. Less sweet, it is virtually completely excluded. More proteins: white meat, nuts, fish, oatmeal. You can eat half a banana a day. Useful buckwheat porridge.
Third: It is important to be observed at the endocrinologist, to become a dispensary account. If the condition worsens – you can go to the hospital. But this is an extreme measure; most patients do not usually need hospitalization.
Fourth: Planning for pregnancy in diabetes is a difficult topic. It is better to give birth as soon as possible. Pregnancy will be at high risk. Find a good gynecologist and endocrinologist. We will tell more about this further.
Fifth: The body is vulnerable to diabetes infections. Treat your throat, teeth in time, do not allow STDs, do flu shots in the autumn-winter period. Handle wounds.
Sixth: Watch your feet. If nails grow, fungus, vascular problems, trophic ulcers appear, visit the center of the diabetic foot. Such specialists are in all major cities. An expert in medical pedicure with a corresponding education (medical university, college) will help to care for your feet. It can be found in a good beauty salon.
Seventh: Physical activity in this disease is obligatory, but it is also impossible to strongly load the body. Be sure to drink enough fluids, do not allow dehydration.
Eighth: Fighting overweight should be your priority. It is necessary to burn as many calories as it comes. Otherwise, the excess fat is actively beginning to accumulate, especially on the stomach. It is enough to prevent obesity, every day an hour to walk. You can not even run.
Ninth: Products for diabetics a lot, but even consuming them, do not overeat. Dietician-gastroenterologist Svetlana Berezhnaya recalls that in diabetic sweets there is sorbitol and xylose. They affect weight. It is much more useful to eat some honey, for example. Eat fractional, diverse, 4 times a day. It is very important to get enough iodine, as thyroid disease aggravates diabetes. Buy iodized salt and sea kale. Will help prevent the development of the disease zinc. He is in mustard and nuts. A handful of nuts a day helps insulin to digest, and immunity – to be in good condition.
Tenth: Diabetes can go on for many years without symptoms, and both patients and therapists explain fatigue and drowsiness with stress, IRR (vascular dystonia), chronic fatigue syndrome. It is sometimes found by chance. In this case, treatment and constant medical supervision are still required. It is necessary for everyone who, when taking blood from a finger, has a sugar level of more than 6 mmol / l. Normal rate – up to 5.6. Above – prediabetes. That is, active preventive measures are already needed, blood donation for sugar every six months.
Obesity and large waist – satellites diabetes
Whether you are overweight can be determined by body mass index. The weight of a person must be divided by the height in meters, squared. For example, if a patient is 170 cm tall, that is, 1.7 (in meters) multiplied by 1.7. Then divide the patient’s weight by the resulting figure. Normal body mass index – 24, and this is the upper limit of normal. If the BMI is from 25 to 29, time to lose weight. Plays the role of waist volume. The upper limit of normal is 93 for men and 79 for women. If the waist is more than this figure, the risk of developing diabetes is doubled.
Diabetes can be determined indirectly by the condition of the hair. They become thin, fall out, slowly grow. Pay attention to this. If you need to take drastic measures, refer to the trichologist, but only after the endocrinologist. Choose the right care products: shampoo, masks, balms.
If you do not treat diabetes, there may be tissue changes, neurological disorders, blindness, and diabetic coma. A few decades ago, amputation, due to violations of the trophic foot, was common.
Globally, 8% of people suffer from diabetes, and these are only the cases that are identified. The more developed a country, the more food a population consumes, the more people suffer from diabetes. In Ukraine – 2 million patients.
The list of healthy foods for diabetes
We recommend leaning on vegetables and olive oil. In season it is good to eat a salad with spinach. Give up white bread. Choose bread from wholemeal flour. Seafood is an essential component of your menu. It can be mussels, fish, squid. If there are enough of them in the diet, you will not have problems with the thyroid gland. In addition, selenium contained in fish improves the condition of the cells of the pancreas, and phosphorus – an indispensable tool for the heart and blood vessels. As for meat, it is better to prefer pork rabbit and beef. These meats are considered dietary, so your weight will not grow.
If you have diabetes, do not despair. It can be controlled. We recommend paying special attention to the health of children if you are sick with this disease.
Diabetes and pregnancy
If you are pregnant, register as early as possible. Tune in to the positive, to give birth to a healthy baby on the term. The doctor will correct the treatment of diabetes. During pregnancy, vascular lesions may progress. The kidneys suffer, therefore, in pregnant women with diabetes, edema is more pronounced than without it. 60% of women develop preeclampsia. The risk of miscarriage is increased in such women by 2 times.
A child can be born large, swollen or, conversely, lightweight (10% of cases). As a rule, women diagnosed with diabetes are referred to cesarean. But with good compensation of the disease natural birth is possible.
You can not get pregnant in such cases:
- When combined with diabetes, RH-conflict.
- If before sick mother the children were born with congenital malformations. Their probability increases with maternal age. If diabetes lasts for more than 15 years, the frequency of birth of children with congenital anomalies is increased 3 times. Most often occurs kidney damage.
Diabetes during pregnancy may occur for the first time. This often happens in women over 35 years old. Every 30 women suffer from diabetes during pregnancy. It is compensated by the appointment of insulin. After 20-30 years, such women develop diabetes as a chronic disease. The risk increases in obese women. Compliance with the recommendations of the endocrinologist will help to safely give birth to a woman with diabetes pregnant, as well as with type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy. Always consult a doctor!