The process of software installation in Linux is different from the process in Windows, which can confuse even an experienced administrator if he previously had no experience with Linux.
What are the packages in Linux?
The software in Linux is distributed in packages that contain almost everything you need for work is installed IN executable files, configuration files, documentation, and various support files, etc.
The software in Linux is distributed in packages that contain almost everything you need for work is installed IN executable files, configuration files, documentation, various support files, etc. it is Clear that the package may not contain everything, otherwise its size would be huge.
Occasionally, one package (A) you want to install the other (B) (for example, some library needed to work ON) – this is called batch dependence. When the package is installed And the package Manager will automatically offer to install all the necessary software components so that the administrator (in contrast to Windows) doesn’t have to do it manually.
There is another phenomenon – when the packages are not compatible with each other (for example, you can set two email clients) – this is called batch conflict. Suppose packages A and B conflict with each other, wherein the file block is already installed. When you try to install package B, the Package Manager will report the conflict and will offer to uninstall the package And resolve the conflict. The administrator will be able to choose either to continue to use the batch feature set And or remove it and install B.
Generally, packages are kept in-network storage – repositories. The repository can be local, but since we are talking about virtual servers, you have to work only with Internet repositories. In the settings of the package Manager stores information on where to get a batch of software components (for Ubuntu repositories is described in the file /etc/apt/sources.list).
There are different package managers for each distribution of your Manager. For example, in Fedora, use dnf in openSUSE – zypper on Debian and Ubuntu – apt. Next, we consider the commands of the package Manager apt is used in Debian/Ubuntu.
To know the name of the required package in the manual that the software that you want to install. If you don’t know the exact name of the batch component (for example, I understand that you need to install MySQL, but I don’t know how it’s called), you can use the list command:
sudo apt list | grep MySQL
The list command lists all available packages, its output is redirected to the command grep, which filters out any rows with MySQL.
List only the installed software components, you can use options –installed:
list sudo apt-installed
Install the package:
sudo apt install mc
The command sets the mc package that contains a file Manager Midnight Commander. To remove, use the remove command:
sudo apt remove mc
In the process of its installation file (with the extension .apk) is downloaded first to the local computer, and then it is a local installation. The problem is that the .apk-file is not deleted from your computer after you install the batch component, and continues to occupy disk space. To clear the batch cache with the command clean:
sudo apt clean
Actually, that’s all. More information about batch Manager and its commands can be found in the help system (the command man apt).