Saturday, July 20, 2024

Configuring Apache on Debian


This article can be seen as a guide to setting up Apache on the Debian webserver. We will set up the web server VPS, running a Debian distribution.

Installing Apache

Apache is the software that implements the function of the webserver. To install Apache with the following command:

# apt install apache2

Installing Apache

Installing Apache

In addition to Apache, you need to install web browser because we need to check the work of the webserver:

# apt install w3m

After the installation of the browser, enter the following command:

# w3m

You should see the page shown below.

Installing Apache

It works!

To exit the browser, press q and then enter y to confirm the exit.

Setup Debian webserver

After installation of the web server Debian, you can start setting it up. The web server rarely used to host one site. Most likely, sites will a few. Further, it will be shown how to create two virtual hosts and Not to bother with DNS settings (a topic for another article), add to /etc/hosts line:

Create user hosting, in your home directory which will contain files for both sites:

# adduser hosting

Setup debian web server

Create user

Log in as this user:

# su hosting

In the user’s home directory, create the following structure:

cd ~ 
mkdir www 
mkdir www/example1 
cd example1 
mkdir htdocs 
mkdir cgi-bin 
mkdir logs 
cd ~ 
cp-R www/www example1/example2 

We create a directory of the web server in the subdirectory for each site. Each of them in turn, we create the directories htdocs, cgi-bin, and logs. The first will contain the files from a particular site, the second CGI applications, and the third logs. We now proceed directly to configuring the webserver. Let’s start with the ports.conf:

# nano /etc/apache2/ports.conf

It should look as shown in the illustration below. The Directive NameVirtualHost *:80 is necessary, on the standard port 80, you could use virtual nodes, which we define next.


The file /etc/apache2/ports.conf

Press Ctrl + O and then Ctrl + X to save and exit the editor.

Go to the directory sites-available. It is necessary to create two config configuration for each of our virtual nodes:

# cd /etc/apache2/sites-available
# nano example1.conf 
# nano example2.conf

The following is the configuration for the first node. For the second it will be the same, different is only the path (instead of X enter the node number is 1 or 2):

<VirtualHost *:80> 
ServerAdmin hosting@localhost 
# The path to the index file 
DirectoryIndex index.html 
DocumentRoot /home/hosting/www/exampleX/htdocs/ 
# Path to CGI 
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /home/hosting/www/exampleX/cgi-bin 
<Location /cgi-bin> 
Options +ExecCGI 
# Path to log files 
ErrorLog /home/hosting/www/exampleX/logs/error.log 
CustomLog /home/hosting/www/exampleX/logs/access.log combined 

Next, you need to create index files for each site to test their performance:

su hosting 
cd /home/hosting/www 
echo " works" > example1/htdocs/index.html 
echo " works" > example2/htdocs/index.html 

We have to activate the created virtual nodes and restarted the webserver. To activate the nodes necessary to create the link to config from the directory sites-available in the catalog sites-enabled:

# cd /etc/apache2/sites-available 
# ln-s example1.conf /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/example1.conf 
# ln-s example2.conf /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/example2.conf

Left to restart Apache:

# systemctl restart apache2.service

Connect to the first node:

# w3m

If you did everything correctly, you should see the index file for your first site. Similarly, it should work for the second.


First opened 🙂

That’s about it. Configure Apache virtual host and complete.

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